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Okpiliya FI

Effiong EB

Imoke Eni

 Iwara Eja



Prime Research on Education

ISSN: 2251-1253

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Prime Journal of Physical Science

(ISSN: 2315-5043)

Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 45-52

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Full Length Research


Mangrove forest ecosystem utilization and depletion: Implication for occupational changes in

Calabar South, Nigeria


1Okpiliya FI , 1Effiong EB, 1Imoke Eni and 2Iwara Eja


1Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Calabar

2 Department of Urban and Regional planning, Cross River State University of Technology, Calabar.


Accepted 20th November 2012



The aim of this study was to examine the various ways in which mangrove forest ecosystem is being utilized and depleted and the implications for occupational changes in the area. Five communities based on observation that are actively involved in the mangrove exploitation were sampled for the study. Using the Yaro Yamen (1980) formula, the sample size of 400 was determined. Based on this, 400 copies of questionnaires whose content bothers on utilization of mangrove, income generated and occupation of the sampled communities was developed and administered. In order to determine the mangrove ecosystem depletion rate, the change intensity index which has the form;  *100, (i=1,2,3---n) was used. A multi-temporal image data of the mangrove vegetation covering areas overtime was acquired and processed. This includes a Topo sheet derived from an aerial photo of 1970, land imagery 1970-2011 in a GIS environment (Arc GIS 9.3). The result of the analysis revealed that; Mangrove is extensively used as a source of fuelwood and for income generation in the study area owing to excessive exploitation of mangrove, the areal extent of mangrove has decreased over the years from 72.69km2 in 1991 to 37.82 km2 in 2011. As the result of depletion of mangrove ecosystem, the occupation of the people have been affected as many people in the study area are now disengage from fuelwood gathering, hunting, fishing and farming.


Key words: Mangrove, Ecosystem, Forest, Depletion, Occupation 


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