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Prime Journal of Microbiology Research (PJMR)

ISSN: 2251-127X. Vol. 5(1), pp. 190-197, June 24th, 2020

www.primejournal.org/PJMR

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Full Length Research

 

 Title

Frequency of genetic mutations causing resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens using molecular line probe assay in Kenya

 Author(s)

*1Mutua Daniel , 1Ngaira Jane, 2Mukiri Nellie, 2Kamau George, 3Kissinger Henry, and 4Limo Jacqueline

 

 Address(es)

*1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Biochemistry, Nairobi, Kenya; P.O. Box 51130-00200 Nairobi, Kenya.

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Biochemistry, Nairobi, Kenya.

2National Tuberculosis Reference laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya.

3Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Dept. of statistics and actuarial Sciences Nairobi Kenya.

4National Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Lung Disease Program, Policy and Planning, Nairobi Kenya

 

 Accepted Date

27th February, 2020

 

 Citation

Mutua D, Ngaira J, Mukiri N, Kamau G, Kissinger H, Limo J (2020). Frequency of genetic mutations causing resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens using molecular line probe assay in Kenya. Prim. J. Microbiol. Res. 5(1): 190-197.

 

 Abstract

Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is as a result of genetic mutation occurring spontaneously in highly conserved regions of Mycobacterium genome. This cross-sectional study was to evaluate frequencies of genetic mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin and Isoniazid using molecular line probe assay (LPA). A total of 429 sputum specimens were selected randomly from samples processed at the National Tuberculosis Reference laboratory, Kenya between 2016-2017. DNA was extracted and resistant genes detected using GenoType MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 (Hain Lifescience Gmbh) which identified rpoB, KatG, and InhA genes. The mutation frequencies patterns, sensitivity and specificity of rifampicin and Isoniazid were analyzed. Of 429 specimens, 20 (4.6%) were resistant only to rifampicin, 62 (14.4%) to Isoniazid and 38 (8.9%) MDR-TB. Overall, 58 (13.5%) and 100 (23.3%) were resistant to RIF, INH respectively. Of the 58 RIF resistant strains, failing of the rpoB Wild Type 8 probe with subsequent detection of a corresponding mutation probe MUT3 at Ser531Leu accounted for 26 (44.8%) of the mutations. 25 (25%) of the 100 INH resistant strains showed a failing KatG WT probe with a corresponding detection of MUT1 probe at Ser315Thr1. 17 (17%) showed a failing inhA WT1 and WT2 with corresponding substitution detection at Cys15Thr. The GenoType MTBDRplus ver. 2.0 in comparison to culture DST showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% and 99.7% for RIF resistance and 99.0% and 100% for INH resistance detection. LPA can be useful in prevalence studies by mapping the distribution of mutant genes and also for routine clinical diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Keywords:
G
enetic mutation, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Isoniazid, line probe assay (LPA)
. 
 

 

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Effects of free education on enhancing access to primary education in Tanzania: A case of Newala District, Mtwara Region

Felister L. Mberege, Fred A. Rwechungura, and Pius S. Chaya

 

Tanzania has attempted to increase access to education at various levels of education systems. Despite all these efforts there are a lot of challenges which need to be address to enhance progress in the education sector. This study is one amongst many with the objective of assessing the effects of free education on enhancing access to primary education in Tanzania. The study used logic model to explain the householdsí decision to enrol their children into primary school under free education policy. The results revealed that free education policy has succeeded both in increasing enrolment and in reducing delays in entering to school because more pupils have been enrolled at the legal school entry age of 5-7 year or less. Besides, free education has not succeeded in reducing dropouts because after implementation of free education policy the surprising outcome is that the percentage of dropouts from school increased.

 

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Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common lower genital tract infection among women, is associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased risk of HIV/STD. BV, is by far most common and yet under-diagnosed among women in sub-Saharan Africa. With poor laboratory infrastructure and lack of skilled personnel, evaluating BV associated factors and point-of-care diagnostic tests are important for prevention and management in Kenya. Vaginal swabs from 227 women (18 years or older) attending Kakamega County Referral Hospital (KCRH) in Western Kenya were tested for BV using Quickvue Advance pH and Amines test, Amselís and Nugentís criteria as the gold standard. Structured interviews gathered information on factors associated with BV among this population.

 

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