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Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management

ISSN: 2251-1261

Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 2237-2242

© Prime Journals  



Full Length Research



Comparison of Anthropometric and Somatotype characteristics of

amateur and professional soccer goalkeepers in Trabzon



1Prof. Dr. Vedat Ayan , 2Yalçın İnan , and 3Prof. Dr. Selami Yüksek



1Trabzon University Sport Sciences Faculties, Trabzon, Turkey. Tel.: +905052381349

2Anadolu İmam Hatip Lisesi, Trabzon, Turkey. Tel.: +905054873881

3Trabzon University Sport Sciences Faculties, Trabzon, Turkey. Tel.: 05052520073


 Accepted Date

27th February, 2020



Ngutiku PK, Karanja NP, Odihiambo R (2017). Comparison of Anthropometric and Somatotype characteristics of amateur and professional soccer goalkeepers in Trabzon. Prim. J. Bus. Admin. Manage. 8(1): 2237-2242.



The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the somatotype differences between the junior goalkeepers playing for the amateur and professional soccer teams in the U-13 League of Trabzon. Sixty volunteer goalkeepers, including 30 professional and 30 amateur players from professional and amateur teams in the city of Trabzon, participated in this study. For somatotype calculations, ten anthropometric variables including height, mass, selected diameters, girths and skinfold thickness were measured. The Heath-Carter somatotype method was used to determine somatotypes. So descriptive statistics and Data frequency values were also evaluated. The Independent-Samples T-test was used to find out statistically significant differences. While the professional goalkeepers aged between 13,06±1,73 had a mean height of 164.33±13.62 cm and a mean weight of 54.05±14.88 kg; the amateur goalkeepers aged between 13,37±1,71 had a mean height of 159.37±12.39 cm and a mean body mass of 53.94±14.80 kg. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean heights, weights, subscapular skinfold thicknesses, the girths of biceps and calf, the diameters of elbow and knee (p>0,05). Statistically significant difference was found in favor of amateur goalkeepers for the following measurements: biceps, triceps, supra-iliac skinfold thicknesses (p<0.05). While endomorph (p<0.05) and mesomorph (p<0.01) values were significant for amateurs, a significant difference was in ectomorph values (p<0,01) for professionals. In conclusion, it was found that the goalkeepers playing for the professional teams were 2-4-4 (mesomorph-ectomorphs), while the goalkeepers playing for the amateur teams were 3-5-3 (balanced mesomorphs). According to the somatotypes, it is thought that goalkeepers playing for the professional soccer teams had a better physical structure than those playing for the amateur teams.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Soccer, Goalkeeper, Somatotype


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Effects of free education on enhancing access to primary education in Tanzania: A case of Newala District, Mtwara Region

Felister L. Mberege, Fred A. Rwechungura, and Pius S. Chaya


Tanzania has attempted to increase access to education at various levels of education systems. Despite all these efforts there are a lot of challenges which need to be address to enhance progress in the education sector. This study is one amongst many with the objective of assessing the effects of free education on enhancing access to primary education in Tanzania. The study used logic model to explain the households’ decision to enrol their children into primary school under free education policy. The results revealed that free education policy has succeeded both in increasing enrolment and in reducing delays in entering to school because more pupils have been enrolled at the legal school entry age of 5-7 year or less. Besides, free education has not succeeded in reducing dropouts because after implementation of free education policy the surprising outcome is that the percentage of dropouts from school increased.


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The Moderating Influence of CSR in the Relationship Between Financial Leverage and Performance of Listed Companies at the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE)

John Karori Nyamiobo and Dr. Headmound Okari Isoe


This study examined the moderating effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on the relationship between financial leverage and Performance of listed firms at the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The research was designed to use quantitative research method utilizing data collected from companies listed at the NSE. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data from finance officers of companies listed at NSE. The data collected was analysed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The study carried out the analysis of the data with the help of statistical packages including SPSS and MS-Excel.


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Test performance and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among women in Western Kenya

Rosemary A. Okuku, Christine Bii, Ernest Makohka, Joseph Gikunji, and Musa Otieno Ngayo


Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common lower genital tract infection among women, is associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased risk of HIV/STD. BV, is by far most common and yet under-diagnosed among women in sub-Saharan Africa. With poor laboratory infrastructure and lack of skilled personnel, evaluating BV associated factors and point-of-care diagnostic tests are important for prevention and management in Kenya. Vaginal swabs from 227 women (18 years or older) attending Kakamega County Referral Hospital (KCRH) in Western Kenya were tested for BV using Quickvue Advance pH and Amines test, Amsel’s and Nugent’s criteria as the gold standard. Structured interviews gathered information on factors associated with BV among this population.


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